- 1 Concept Map
- 2 Introduction to Science Laboratory
- 3 Planning of Science laboratories
- 4 Entry of apparatus in the registers
- 5 Slide presentation
- 6 Simple Science Experiments in School
- 7 Important terms from Wikipedia
- 8 List of experiments
- 9 Lab activities as investigations and for Formative Assessments
- 10 News articles
Introduction to Science Laboratory
One of the important functions of the science laboratory is the deepening of the students understanding that scientific concepts and application are closely related to their own natural environment. In the laboratory the students can be taught more readily to be discriminating in observations, to evaluate evidence of data and to sense the importance of care and skill in the talking of measurements. Laboratory should be represented as an integral part of instruction in science. Before constructing the laboratory, the following factors should be taken into consideration at the planning stage.
- The number of pupils working at a time.
- The minimum space for each pupil and teacher for comfortable working.
- Need for ancillary accommodation for storage.
- Designing the science class room and laboratory in such a way that it could be used for science teaching.
- Demonstration table.
Planning of Science laboratories
In secondary schools, science is taught as a core subject. In addition to this these are three elective subjects i.e., physics, chemistry and biology. The size of the laboratory will depend upon the number of students working at a time in the laboratory. It may be planned according to the need of the school.
The Physics laboratory :
The physics laboratory should be equipped with
- Working tables of about 6’x4’x3’ size.
- One demonstration table.
- A wall of black board behind the demonstration table.
- Sinks in the wall.
- Projected platform in the wall for charts.
- Bench or desk for pupils.
The Chemistry laboratory :
It should have the following equipments
- Working table with shelves, cupboards and with acid proof topics.
- One demonstration table with cupboard and with water and gas fittings.
- Shelves for keeping chemical reagents. These may either be fitted on the working table or in the walls.
- Sinks in the walls or in the working tables.
- A wall of black board.
- A fume cupboard.
The Biology laboratory :
It should be equipped with
- A demonstration table.
- Stools, sinks, wall black board, almirahs
- Space for aquarium
- Specimens stand or table or shelves.
- Projected platform in the wall for charts.
Entry of apparatus in the registers
The articles received should be properly checked and entered in the registers the same day. A correct and properly maintained record of the articles in important to check any articles at any time. The apparatus and material should be entered separately in the article whether permanent, breakable or consumable. The three stock registers can be:
Permanent stock register:
In this register entered the all articles purchased from the firm and taken from the department or donators.
Breakable stock Register:
This will include the articles of glass-ware such as flasks, beakers, thermometers etc. After the broken enter into or remove the item from permanent stock register.
Consumable stock register:
Chemicals, pins, wires, rubber tubes etc will be entered in this register. Stock verification should be compulsory and conducting at March 31st every year. At that time we will remove the breakable stocks and consumable stocks from Permanent stock register, then certified by head of the institution and lab in charge teacher.
Vaishampayan. K Joshi Sir
Asst. Teacher, Girls Govt High School SIRWAR Tq:Manvi Dt:Raichur
Simple Science Experiments in School
The following experiments have been shared by Praveen Kamath Sir, GHS Ankanahally, Somavarpet Taluk, Kodagu
The following experiments have been shared by S V Burli Sir, Banjara High School, Bijapur
Click here for more.
Important terms from Wikipedia
List of experiments
- test for starch
- test for carbohydrates
- carbondioxide is essential for photosynthesis
- to show structure of stomata
- oxygen is released during photosynthesis
Lab activities as investigations and for Formative Assessments
Setting up a ;ab activity as an inquiry - An example
Experiment: Testing the hardness of water
The focus of this discussion is to see how we can make a lab activity an exercise in doing of science.
- Burner/ Spirit Lamp
- Test Tube holder
- Samples of water
- Test tubes – to be labeled as sample 1/ 2/ so on
- Washing soda/ piece of soap
- The developmental questions should focus on what we are observing, what is the reason for the observation. These discussions become the basis for the theory class.
- The focus is on setting up the experiment.
- In groups, ask children to investigate the water samples. Take 2 or 3 samples. Accordingly give 2/3 test tubes and labeled for students to investigate the water and study.
- There are two parts to the experiment. The first is to see whether there is any difference between the water samples. The first step is to establish that there is a difference. Then to examine what is the differene and what is the difference due to?
Part – I
Boil the water samples in the test tubes. Ask the students to report on the following:
Questions for Observation/ Inference:
- What did you notice when you boiled the water?
- How long did it take to boil?
- In which sample did you notice the difference?
- What did you observe? (boil fast/ slow, white powder)
- What do you think is the reason?
- There is a difference in the water
- Where did that white powder come from? Did you add? (Yes/ No)
- It was already in the water (have you seen this elsewhere)
Some students may answer “hard water”. Then we can ask the following questions:
- What is hard in the water? What makes it hard?
(There is something dissolved in the water – there is a hard substance)
- What does the hardness do? (Lather/ no lather)
Part – II
- The second part of the experiment is to study the changes in the water due to the hardness.
- To each of the samples, add the washing soap/ soda. In specified amounts and shake to form lather.
Questions for Observation/ Inference:
These are to be written down by students as observations
- What is the difference?
- How much soap did we add? How much water is there?
- How did we add/ mix the chemical?
- What is happening? The chemical you put – will it float or sink?
- Measure the amount of water left in the test tube
- Is it dissolving?
- Is the colour changing? To the chemical added/ water
- Do you notice any smell?
- Do you see any smoke or fire?
- Is it remaining in same form?
- How much water is left?
- Is there any change in temperature? (Did you measure temperature before adding the soap?)
- Did anything new come in the test tube?
- Measure the column of lather in the test tubes using a ruler.
- Lather formation is more in water sample which did not have the salt deposit when boiled
- The salt deposit reduces lather; this makes the water hard.
- Some salt is there in one/ more of the samples
- Salt is causing hardness; will affect lather
- Lather in relative – hardness/ softness of water is also relative
- To measure the amount of salt
- Comparison across samples
- Removing hardness
Teacher Observation/ Assessment Parameters
The teacher can observe the student doing the experiment as well as the results/ inferences and conclusions and use this as a basis for conducting further discussions as also for formative asssessments.
Parameters to observe:
- Process of doing the experiment - heating, observing, handling
- Documentation – observation, inference and the conclusion
- Participation, Attitude
- "Wrong" answers that express mis-conceptions/ intuitive beliefs about a phenomena
- Hindu news article. He said that the present curriculum in the schools does not give importance to the non-formal learning process, through which learning gets imprinted in the memory of children for a longer period. The government should also establish science clubs. Visits to science labs, horticulture and agriculture fields should be part of the learning process in schools, he said. NCSM has already introduce a virtual lab in Chemistry and Zoology and shortly it would come out with virtual lab facilities in other branches of science and mathematics.