Hindi language learning course

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ಕನ್ನಡ

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Hindi language learning resources, created using the H5P tool

Introduction

Hindi is the language which is spoken by the largest number of people in India. Hindi proficiency is considered useful in determining mobility and employment opportunities in many ways, specially in the Northern part of the country.

Language learning is now widely recognised as having two objectives – one of communicative competencies and using language for learning. In the context of a country like India where there are multiple languages, Hindi is not to be seen stand alone but in the context of multiple languages.

Yet another context in which the learning of Hindi is being explored here is in the increasing use of digital technologies - also referred to as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT provide methods of creating and communicating in multiple formats and present new opportunities for building language competencies. Digital platforms also now make it possible to create multiple educational resources which can be offered to learners using multiple methods – combining physical and virtual means. This presents new possibilities and pathways for designing curricular materials and instructional design for learning Hindi.

It is against this backdrop that this course on Hindi learning has been developed. The course has been developed as a series of course modules focusing on building language competencies in Hindi as well as using Hindi for learning. These modules can be attempted in sequence or independently (assuming competencies required prior to that module have been reasonably attained).

Objectives

  1. To understand/ reinforce the different objectives and processes of language learning and the role of ICT in this
  2. To understand different approaches to early language learning – both first language and second language; and the role of multilingualism in supporting language learning
  3. To identify areas and modules for teacher development to support Hindi learning - that support their own Hindi proficiency as well as develop Hindi learning strategies for their classroom contexts
  4. To identify resource needs and plan for their access, creation, revision, curation and publishing
  5. To develop resources using multiple tools - H5P, Open Board and generic text, image, animation and audio visual free and open source applications – for language teaching-learning
  6. To develop structured modules for an understanding Hindi language learning as well as provide strategies for the teacher/ student to explore language in all its dimensions – the listening, speaking, reading and writing – using ICT, and integrate these with the Karnataka state syllabus textbooks for languages
  7. To explore new digital tools and applications for language learning - especially for students with special learning needs (visual and auditory impairments)
  8. To develop a plan / program for the language program for a school.

Who can use this course / program

The program will be designed and implemented for schools in Bengaluru South 3 block, through workshops, on-site demonstrations and resource sharing, however, it is shared as OER to enable any school (or any organization working with a school) to use the modules as a part of their own curriculum.

  1. The program is intended to be transacted in multiple contexts - of different levels of Hindi skills in the learner environment and differing levels of teacher proficiency. The materials can be used for lower primary, higher primary or even high schools.
  2. The program can be used by teachers in formal schools - rural or urban, government or private - at different levels based on their contexts.
  3. The program can also be used as a simultaneous learning program for teachers and students in rural and / or tribal or urban sum contexts where teacher proficiency may be lower in Hindi. The activities will include variants to allow such a transaction.
  4. The program can also be used by teacher educators working in the area of language teaching

Core principles of language learning

The aim is to not re-invent the wheel, instead benefit from the work already done by educationists, educational institutions, language learning experts in the 'OER' spirit of freely giving and taking. The core principles of language learning are based on different approaches and methods tried in Hindi learning in India and elsewhere, and widely accepted theories of language development. A techno-pedagogic integration has been attempted across multiple methods to bring the affordances of digital technologies to support the acquisition of language competencies.

  1. Hindi learning must focus on two dimensions - communicative competence and using language for learning. Building communicative competencies has priority over using language for learning. Hindi learning will be situated within the context of a multi-lingual language environment, and as strongly suggested by National Curricular Framework 2005 Position Paper on Teaching of Hindi, not aim to create or perpetuate any hegemonies of Hindi over the local language.
  2. Stephen Krashen's theory of 'second language acquisition' informs the approach used for developing the language curriculum and the following guidelines have been followed for developing the curriculum
    1. The Hindi learning environment will create an environment that allows the child to acquire language in ways and methods that they have used to acquire their first language, believing that the child will want to use language contexts for meaningful interaction
    2. The focus will be on hearing and producing; and seeing and producing. The child's first language / mother tongue/ local language are used to support the meaning making from the Hindi language interactions. This is to be distinguished from the translation method.
    3. Phonetics based approaches integrating hearing and seeing as methods of learning the sounds and combinations of sounds to make words. Wherever possible and relevant Montessori methods for early language learning have been adopted into the development of the curriculum
    4. Since meaningful interactions will be the basis for language acquisition, listening experiences will be created which focus on phrase patterns and sentence patterns
  3. Different ICT tools and methods are used for exploring communicative possibilities as well as in the creation of a resource rich environment
  4. Children come with different levels of competence in Hindi, based on the environment they are surrounded. This impacts both their levels of language acquisition as well as their perceived benefit from learning Hindi. The learning modules are therefore to be developed to support a multi-level learning even in a single-age classroom
  5. Teacher proficiencies and beliefs about Hindi language learning are critical to influence for creating a meaningful context for Hindi language acquisition. The curriculum will therefore also focus on this.

Program design

The program is conceptualized as a series of modules which can be attempted independently or in sequence. Each module will have several units along which the concepts, resources and learning activities will be organized. The units have been designed to be transacted as a whole but it is possible for different units and modules to be combined to address the needs of specific contexts. Each unit will consists of a group of lessons, objectives (learning outcomes), intended audience, resources, activities and assessment. It can also have optional / alternative activities and extensions.

The following is an initial list of modules being offered in this program.

Module 1 - An overview of different language learning approaches and associated methods

Objectives
  1. To introduce teachers to different theories and approaches of language learning
  2. To develop an insight into the ways children process and learn language
Audience
  1. Teachers in different contexts
  2. Teacher educators
Resources
  1. Summarized readings of works of leading linguists and educators
  2. Videos/ recordings of different classroom approaches
  3. Examples:
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6tXzNjAfTwI
    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBsyq7_RPNk
Unit 1 - Understanding how children learn languages
Unit 2 - Different language learning approaches
Unit 3 - Context of Hindi language learning in India

This unit will have a brief description of how Hindi learning has been attempted in India, the history of different approaches tried in India. How to teach Hindi in a multi lingual context will be the focus of this unit.

Unit 4 - Overview of the language curriculum in this course

Based on different language approaches, the curriculum will focus on providing activities for learning Hindi through acquisition.

The subsequent modules will therefore focus on hearing (listening), seeing (reading), speech and writing in that order. There will also be lesson examples that will be given for providing resource extensions and multi-media input for language lessons in their Hindi language textbooks.

Assessment

Module 2 - Hearing the language

In this module the focus will be on hearing the words and word phrases as spoken in Hindi, without an emphasis on seeing / reading script. The seeing of the words will come later and association of the sounds with the script will come later. The focus is here on getting the students familiar with the arbitrariness of a group of sounds to indicate meaning for specific words and contexts.

Objectives
  1. To build an understanding of the spoken word in Hindi
  2. To introduce students to the patterns and structures in Hindi through listening
Audience
  1. Any beginner group
Resources
  1. Objects
  2. Pictures
  3. Recordings of words and phrases
  4. Video clips
  5. Simple short stories as audio clips -
  6. Simple words, commonly used words - audio of the words, images of the word (no focus on script) to register and build vocabulary
  7. Concrete items which are commonly used/accessed/seen
  8. Basic verbs
  9. Word categories - animals, plants, relationships - See a list in this spreadsheet
  10. Simple sentences
  11. Alternate sources of materials - Pratham story viewer
Unit 1 - Introduction to simple words in the environment (object identification)

Activity: The teacher will introduce simple objects in the environment the students are familiar with. For example, "What is this?" Students may say "ಪುಸ್ತಕ" or the closest word in their language. The teacher can explain "This is a book". This is the phase in which the multi lingual nature of a classroom can be fully explored and used. This can be repeated for a given number of objects or pictures. Movement should be from objects to pictures.

Once they have listened to the sounds, the teacher can do the reverse. After they listen to the words, students can identify the correct objects. The teacher demonstrates with one example. "Show me the book" And shows the book. It is to be noted here that the word show is also introduced. This can be done either by directly speaking or by playing the recordings of the words/ phrases and have students identify the associated objects/ pictures

Assessment is continuous and built into the process.

Unit 2 - Introduction to simple conversational structures

Activity: The teacher will introduce simple conversational structures and also numbers and counting in Hindi. This assumes, of course, that children have basic number-quantity association understanding. This can also include simple words that qualify objects and also introduce color names. Here again, the local language of the classroom will be used to introduce the conversational words. For example, in the examples below - "ಹೆಸುರು" "ಬಣ್ಣ" can be used to introduce words like name and color.

Examples:

  1. What is your name? My name is Ranjani
  2. What color is this? This color is blue.
  3. What is Kavya doing? Kavya is walking. (Introduce pronouns later)

Show recordings of simple activities done by the students - walking, eating, drawing and use these clips to make recordings of the activity in Hindi.

Unit 3 - Listening to simple stories in Hindi

Activity: The teacher needs to tell simple stories from words already introduced and help students make meaning. Here again a multi lingual approach will be useful. Stories can be told in Hindi and translated into Kannada and vice-versa. However, care should be taken to move gradually into speaking Hindi fully. The objective here is to deepen knowledge of language by broadening vocabulary, with sentence construction, set of sentences comprising a simple story

As a variant, the teacher can project a picture, have the children work in groups to tell a story. These stories can be told by the children and recorded and these can be used further as resources.

Unit 4 - Making categories of words

Families of words can be made into lists along with recordings of phrases

Assessment
  1. Make a list of all the words students have been introduced to and allow them to pair up / work in small groups to listen to each other speak the words.
  2. The teacher must observe how much of the local language is being used to communicate
  3. With simple picture stories (these can be created even by the students), ask students to communicate in Hindi a story from the pictures

Module 3 - Introducing sounds and the associated symbols

Objective
  1. Introducing script (which is an arbitrary artefact)
  2. Introducing the connection between script and sound (which is a second arbitrary item)
  3. Combination of sounds and scripts
  4. Sensitizing the ear to the sound and shapes
Audience
  1. Young children
  2. Any audience which will need the beginning literacy skills in Hindi .
  3. Reinforcement for adults (useful for second language learning)
Resources
  1. Audio clips of the sounds in the language with the associated symbol (script)
  2. Interactive materials which will introduce the script and the sound
  3. For very young children, sensorial activities like writing in sand, tracing on sand etc of the letters
  4. Animations showing the formation of the script for each sound along with the recording of the sound
  5. Simple words, commonly used words - audio of the words, images of the word (no focus on script) to register and build vocabulary
  6. Concrete items which are commonly used / accessed / seen
  7. Basic verbs
  8. Word categories - animals, plants, relationships - See a list in this spreadsheet
  9. Simple sentences
Unit 1 - Isolation and introduction to sounds

Activity - For the words already introduced, the teacher will introduce the sounds the mouth makes when saying the words. To begin with, restrict it to beginning sounds.

"What is the sound your mouth makes when you say book?". The students may be able to say "b"

Here the local language should not be used. While children can listen and speak multiple languages, reading multiple script symbols is not to be encouraged.

Again the pictures of the words can be projected and students can work in pairs/ groups to say the sounds.

The teacher can record these and play for the class; this can be a peer assessment activity also.

Unit 2 - Showing the connection between sounds and script

Self learning, learners can browse through the letters and hear the sounds and register

Activities / processes (assessment)
  1. Self assessment - Quiz oneself - identify and utter the sound on seeing the letter.
  2. Hearing the sound and writing the letter

Module 4 - Beginning reading - reading materials

Objective
  1. Introducing to the construction of letters and sound make meaning and form words
  2. Vocabulary building using the knowledge of scripts and sounds
  3. Build fluency in reading
Audience
  1. Young children
  2. For second language resources to learn vocabulary
Unit 1 - Reading simple words
  1. With pictures – pictures
  2. With pictures and word
  3. Only word – word
  4. Pictures - Advance reading – L1 – L2 -L3 -
Unit 2 - Reading phrases and sentences
Unit 3 - Reading to learn
  1. Reading to make meaning
  2. Reading for pleasure
  3. Introducing Grammar Implicit

Module 5 - Use of ICT for communicative Hindi

Module 6 - Use of digital resources to transact language lessons

Resources and additional readings