Plantae

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Contents

Concept Map

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Teaching Outlines

Multicellular algae

Learning objectives

  1. students explains the body structure of multicellular algae
  2. students explains the important characteristics of multicellular algae
  3. students differentiates multicellular algae based on pigmentation
  4. students observe specimens of multicellular algae in a micro scope
  5. students draw the diagrams of multicellular algae

Notes for teachers

  1. Multicellular algae have undifferentiated thalloid body structure
  2. Based on pigmentation they are classified into three groups,they are Green algae,Brown algae and Red algae
  3. Gametophytic plant body is predominant
  4. They exhibit vegetative,asexual and sexual reproduction
  5. They are primitive thallophytic plants


Activity No 1 - Collecting specimens of algae

Estimated Time

Based on the source of collection(distance from the school)

Materials/ Resources needed

  1. formalin solution
  2. glass/transparent plastic jars

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Select shallow water bodies
Superwise students while collecting specimens from water bodies

Multimedia resources

File:algae.jpegAlgae.jpeg File:a2.jpegA2.jpeg

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

  1. How is the structure of algae that you have collected?
  2. How algae are different from higher plants?

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

  1. Explain the pigmentation in algae?
  2. Explain the thalloid structure of algae?

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

Bryophytes

Learning objectives

  1. students explains the body structure of bryophytes
  2. students realizes the importance of rhizoids in bryophytes
  3. students describes the life cycle of bryophytes
  4. students understands the dominance of gametophyte in the life cycle of bryophytes
  5. students explains the reproduction in bryophytes
  6. students admires the economic importance of brtophytes

Notes for teachers

  1. Bryophytes are considered as amphibians of plant kingdom,usualy habituate damp soil
  2. Rhizoids,a root like structure helps to absorb water and minerals from soil
  3. There are two phases in life cycle,gametophyte is dominant,whereas sporophyte is small and dependent on gametophyte
  4. They are non vascular plants
  5. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction
  6. In the gametophyte,antheridium(male reproductive structure)and archaegonium(female reproductive structure)are present

Activity1

Activity No 1 - 'Observation of gametophyte and sporophyte in Bryophytes'

Estimated Time

40 minutes

Materials/ Resources needed

Sporophytic and gametophytic generation of any Bryophyte

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Students are instructed to go through the text book content on bryophytes

Multimedia resources

File:I10-22a-bryophytes.jpgI10-22a-bryophytes.jpg File:life-cycle-funaria-small.GIFLife-cycle-funaria-small.GIF

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Instruct students to observe the gametophyte and sporophyte of bryophyte ask them to draw their observation

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

  1. Is the sporophyte independent of gametophyte?
  2. What is the major difference that you observe between gametophyte and sporophyte?

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

  1. What are the two phases of life cycle in bryophytes?
  2. What are the differences between gametophyte and sporophyte in bryophytes?

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

Pteridophytes

Learning objectives

  1. students realizes the evolution of vascular tissues in pteridophytes
  2. students explains the important characteristics of pteridophytes
  3. students describes the life cycle in pteridophytes
  4. students understands the dominance of sporophytic plant body in pteridophytes
  5. students explains reproduction in pteridophytes
  6. students appreciates the ecomic and aesthetic importance of pteridophytes

Notes for teachers

  1. Pteridophytes are the first evolved vascular plants
  2. Plant body is differentiated into root,stem and leaves
  3. There are two phases in life cycle,sporophyte is dominant,whereas gametophyte is small,but independent
  4. Their gametophyte is called as prothallus
  5. They usually found in humid shadow habitats
  6. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction

Activiti

=Activity No 1 - 'Observation of sporophyte and gametophyte in Pteridophytes'

Estimated Time

40 minutes

Materials/ Resources needed

Specimens of sporophyte and gametophyte of given Pteridophyte

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Instruct students to refer text book content on Pteridophytes before the activity

Multimedia resources

File:ferns.gifFerns.gif File:Life cycle of a Heterosporous Pteridophyte.jpgLife cycle of a Heterosporous Pteridophyte.jpg

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

  1. What is the major difference that you observed between gametophyte and sporophyte in pteridophytes?
  2. Is gametophyte independent from sporophyte in pteridophytes?

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

  1. Explain the life cycle in Pteridophytes?
  2. Write the differences between sporophyte and gametophyte in Pteridophytes?

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back


Activity No 2 - mioroscopic observation of vascular bundles in pteridophytes

Estimated Time

40 minutes

Materials/ Resources needed

  1. Microscope
  2. glass slides and cover slips
  3. stain
  4. stem of a pteridophyte
  5. cutter,watch glass and water

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

[1] File:ptr2.jpegPtr2.jpeg File:ptr3.jpgPtr3.jpg

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

Activity No # 1 - Name of Activity

Estimated Time

Materials/ Resources needed

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

  1. Collect the specimens of Pteridophytes in your locality and observe their body structure
  2. Take a transverse section of stem of any pteridophytic plant you have collected and observe vascular bundles(steles)

Gymnosperms

Learning objectives

  1. students explains the important characteristics of gymnosperms
  2. students realizes the significance of bare seeds in gymnosperms
  3. students explains the structure and function of cones in gymnosperms
  4. students explains the reproduction in gymnosperms
  5. students understands the evolutionary significance of diminishing gametophyte

Notes for teachers

  1. Gymnosperms have distinguished naked seeds without seed cover in their plantbody
  2. They are characterized by cones,male cone is a bundle of microsporophylls,whereas female cone is a bundle of megasporophylls
  3. They are perenial trees or shrubs,found in xerophytic, temperate and polar habitat
  4. Vascular tissues are more advanced than pteridophytes
  5. Cones are the gametophytic structures,rest of the plantbody is sporophyte
  6. cones(gametophyte)are entirely dependent and a part of dominant sporophytic plant body

Activities

Activity No 1 - collecting male and female cones of gymnosperms

Estimated Time

Subjected to availability of specimen

Materials/ Resources needed

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

File:gym1.jpegGym1.jpeg File:gym2.jpegGym2.jpeg

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back


Activity No 2 - observing seeds of cycas/thuja

Estimated Time

Materials/ Resources needed

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

Activity No # 1 - Name of Activity

Estimated Time

Materials/ Resources needed

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

  1. Collect male and female cones of Thuja or Cycas in your locality and compare the differences between male and female cones
  2. Observe mega spores and micro spores under microscope

Angiosperms

Learning objectives

  1. students explains the important characteristics of angiosperms
  2. students realizes the significance of fruit covered seeds in angiosperms
  3. students explains the structure and function of flowers in angiosperms
  4. students explains the reproduction in gymnosperms
  5. students understands the evolutionary significance of diminishing gametophyte
  6. Students differentiates monocots from dicots

Notes for teachers

  1. Angiosperm are most advanced and highly evolved class among plants
  2. They are characterized by seed covered by fruit
  3. They are all flower bearing plants,specialized shoot bearing bunch of flowers is called as inflorescence
  4. There are two groups,monocots and dicots based on number of cotyledons in the seed
  5. The entire plantbody is sporophyte except androecium and gynoecium(they are the only gametophytic representatives in entire plant)
  6. The vascular bundles are highly evolved than gymnosperms and pteridophytes
  7. They exhibit rich diversity when compared to other classes of plants

Activities

Activity No # 1 - observing venation in leaves of dicot and monocot plants

Estimated Time

Materials/ Resources needed

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back


Activity No # 2 - observing germination of dicot and monocot seeds

Estimated Time

Materials/ Resources needed

Prerequisites/Instructions, if any

Multimedia resources

Website interactives/ links/ simulations

Process (How to do the activity)

Developmental Questions (What discussion questions)

Evaluation (Questions for assessment of the child)

Question Corner

To link back to the topic page Give the link of the page name from where activity was given Back

Assessment Activities for CCE

  1. Write an essay on 'evolutionary trend in different classes of Kingdom Plantae'
  2. Prepare herbarium of monocot and dicot leaves to compare venation
  3. Germinate monocot and dicot seeds,observe the growth and record your observation
  4. Collect the representative specimens of all the classes of Plantae and record the differences in their body structure.

Project Ideas

  1. Conduct a micro survey of monocot and dicot plants in your locality
  2. Project on,'comparative study of evolution of vascular bundles in plants'

Fun corner