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NCERT Science Laboratory Manuals

NCERT Science Class IX Laboratory Manuals

Sl No Topic Name Page No Link to the Topic
1 Introduction 1 Lab Manual Part 1
2 General Laboratory Facilities 3
3 Preparing Students for Laboratory Work 6
4 General Laboratory Rules 7
5 First Aid Treatment 9
6 Recording of Experiment 10
Sl No UNIT I - MATERIALS Page No Link to the Experiments
1 To study the different parts of a simple (dissecting) Microscope 13 Lab Manual Part 2
2 To study the different parts of a compound Microscope 16
3 To determine the density of a liquid (other than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder 21
4 To determine the density of a non-porous solid(insoluble and denser than water) by using a spring balance and a measuring cylinder 25
5 To show that gases are readily compressible and liquids are not 29
6 To study the changes in state of sublimate solids on heating 32
7 To study the process of evaporation 35
8 To determine the boiling point of water and melting point of ice 37
9 To prepare a saturated solution of common salt in distilled water and to determine its solubility at room temperature 41
10 To prepare a solution of common salt of 10% composition by mass 46
11 To separate the components of a mixture of sand,common salt and ammonium chloride 49
12 To prepare solutions of various substance and to identify them as true solutions and suspension 53
13 To prepare a colloidal solution of sulphur and differentiate it from a true solution or from a suspension on the basis of transparency and filtration 55
14 To study the process of separation of a mixture of two immiscible liquids 58
15 To separate a mixture of two miscible liquids by simple distillation 60
16 To differentiate between a mixture (containing two components) and a pure compound 63
17 To verify the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction 66
Sl No UNIT II - THE WORLD OF LIVING Page No Link to the Experiments
1 To prepare a stained, temporary mount of onion peel and to study the cells 69 Lab Manual Part 3
2 To prepare a temporary mount of human cheek epithelial cells, and to study its characteristics 72
3 To study the phenomenon of osmosis 75
4 To study plasmolysis in leaf epidermal peels of Rhoeo 78
5 To test the presence of starch in a given food or Tradescantia. sample and metanil yellow in pigeon pea 81
6 To study parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues in plants by preparing temporary slides 83
7 To identify and study striated muscle fibre and nerve fibre in animals 88
8 To study the characteristics of Spirogyra, Agaricus, moss, fern, Pinus and an angiosperm plant 91
9 To prepare herbarium sheet of a flowering plant 96
10 To study the features and draw diagrams of earthworm, cockroach, bony fish and bird 100
11 To compare the external features of monocot and dicot Plants 104
12 To study the life cycle of a mosquito 108
13 To study the life cycle of malarial parasite 111
14 To collect and study symptoms of diseases in locally available crop plants 114
Sl No UNIT III - MOVING THINGS, PEOPLE AND IDEAS Page No Link to the Experiments
1 To plot distance–time (s – t) and graph for an object moving with a uniform speed from a given set of s and t data and to determine the speed of the Object 117 Lab Manual Part 4
2 To plot the speed–time (v – t) graph for an object moving with uniform accelerations from a given set of v – t data and to determine the acceleration of the moving object and the distance moved by the object 122
3 To study the third law of motion using two spring balances 128
4 To study the variation in limiting friction with mass and the nature of surfaces in contact 133
5 To verify Archimedes’ principle 139
6 To establish the relation between the loss in weight of a solid when fully immersed in (i) tap water;(ii)strongly salty water, with the weight of water displaced by it by taking at least two different solids 144
7 To plot temperature–time graph for a hot object as it Cools 149
8 To study the effect of amplitude on the time period of a simple pendulum 153
9 To study the variation in time period of a simple pendulum with its length 158
10 To study the effect of mass on the time period of a simple pendulum 163
11 To determine the speed of a transverse pulse propagated through a stretched string 168
12 To determine the speed of a longitudinal pulse propagated through a stretched slinky 173
13 To study the reflection of sound 180

NCERT Science Class X Laboratory Manuals

Sl No Topic Name Page No Link to the Topic
1 Introduction 1 Lab Manual Part 1
2 General Laboratory Facilities 3
3 Preparing Students for Laboratory Work 7
4 General Laboratory Rules 7
5 First Aid Treatment 9
6 Recording of Experiment 10
Sl No UNIT I - MATERIALS Page No Link to the Experiments
1 To study the chemical reaction of an iron nail with aqueous copper sulphate solution; and to study the burning of magnesium ribbon in air 13 Lab Manual Part 2
2 To study the following chemical reactions: (a) zinc with sulphuric acid; (b) precipitation reaction between aqueous solution of barium chloride and aqueous solution of sodium sulphate; and (c) thermal decomposition of ammonium chloride in an open container 18
3 To measure the change in temperature during chemical reactions and to conclude whether the

reaction is exothermic or endothermic

25
4 To study the reactions of hydrochloric acid with zinc metal, sodium carbonate, and sodium hydroxide 28
5 To study the reactions of sodium hydroxide with aluminum metal and hydrochloric acid 32
6 To show that acids, bases, and salts are electrolytes 35
7 To find the pH of the given samples of solutions of solids or fruit juices using pH paper 39
8 To identify bleaching powder among given samples of chemicals 42
9 To identify washing soda or baking soda among given samples of chemicals 45
10 To show that crystals of copper sulphate contain water of crystallisation 49
11 To study the interaction of metals such as magnesium, zinc, iron, tin, lead, copper, aluminum (any four) with their salt solutions and to arrange them according to their reactivity 51
12 To study the reaction of metals with water under different temperature conditions 54
13 To study reaction of metals with dilute acids 58
14 To prepare sulpher dioxide gas and study its physical and chemical properties 61
15 To prepare carbon dioxide gas and study its physical and chemical properties 65
16 To study the process of electrolysis 69
17 To study physical and chemical properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid) 73
18 To study esterification reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid 76
19 To study some oxidation reactions of alcohol 79
20 To study saponification reaction for preparation of soap 82
21 To compare the foaming capacity of different samples of soap 85
22 To study the comparative cleansing capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water 89
Sl No UNIT II - THE WORLD OF THE LIVING Page No Link to the Experiments
23 To prepare temporary mounts of leaf peels to observe stomata and to differentiate between dicot and monocot stomata 93 Lab Manual Part 3
24 To show that light is essential for photosynthesis 96
25 To show that carbon dioxide is essential for photosynthesis 99
26 To study the liberation of carbon dioxide gas during aerobic respiration 102
27 To study the liberation of carbon dioxide gas during fermentation 108
28 To study the action of salivary amylase on starch solution 112
29 To determine the mass percentage of water imbibed by raisins 115
30 To study the phenomenon of phototropism and geotropism in plants 118
31 To study binary fission in Amoeba or Paramoecium and budding in yeast or Hydra 122
32 To study vegetative propagation in potato, Bryophyllum, and an aquatic plants 125
33 To study the parts of a flower and their role in sexual reproduction 128
Sl No UNIT III - THE NATURAL PHENOMENON Page No Link to the Experiments
34 To verify the laws of reflection of light using a plane mirror 132 Lab Manual Part 4
35 To draw the images of an object formed by a concave mirror when the object is placed at various positions 136
36 To determine the focal length of a concave mirror by obtaining image of a distant object 142
37 To study the formation of an image of a lighted candle by a concave mirror, when placed slightly beyond the centre of curvature 146
38 To study the formation of an image of a lighted candle by a concave mirror, when placed between the centre of curvature and the principal focus 151
39 To study the formation of an image of a lighted candle by a concave mirror, when placed at the centre of curvature 156
40 To trace the path of a ray of light passing obliquely through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence and to measure the angle of incidence,angle of refraction, the angle of emergence, and

interpret the results

161
41 To trace the path of a ray of light passing obluiquely through a rectangular glass slab and to determine the refreactive index of the glass 165
42 To trace the path of a ray of light through a glass prism and to measure the angle of deviation 170
43 To draw the images of an object formed by a convex lens when placed at various positions 174
44 To determine the focal length of a thin convex lens by obtaining image of a distant object 180
45 To study the formation of an image of a lighted candle by a convex lens when placed at a distance slightly more than the twice of the focal length (f) from the optical centre of the lens 184
46 To study the formation of an image of a lighted candle by a convex lens when placed at a distance of 2f convex from the optical centre of the convex lens 189
47 To study the formation of an image of a lighted candle by a convex lens when placed at a distance less than 2f but more than f from the optical centre of the convex lens 194
Sl No UNIT IV - HOW THINGS WORK Page No Link to the Experiments
48 To study the dependence of the potential difference across a resistor on the current through it and to determine its resistance and to verify the Ohm’s law 199 Lab Manual Part 5
49 To study the factors that affects the resistance of a resistor 204
50 To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors connected in series combination 209
51 To determine the equivalent resistance of two resistors connected in parallel combination 213
52 To draw the magnetic field lines of a bar magnet 217
53 To draw the magnetic field lines of a current-carrying straight wire 221
54 To study the magnetic field of an electromagnet 226
55 To study the force on a current-carrying straight conductor in a magnetic field and to verify that the motion of conductor is according to Fleming's Left Hand Rule 231
56 To study the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction 236
Sl No UNIT V - PROJECT WORK Page No Link to the Experiments
1 Types of Project,Some Suggestivve Projects and Exemplar Project Write-Ups 242 Lab Manual Part 6
2 Bio-degradable and non-bio-degradable Wastes 247
3 Land Area and Leaf Area of a Plant 250
4 Rusting of Iron 253