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The Story of Science

Philosophy of Science

Teaching of Science

Curriculum and Syllabus

Topics in School Science


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Additional information

Platy helminthes

  1. Tapeworm life cycle video

Useful websites

Reference Books

Teaching Outlines


  1. Life flying fish video

Learning objectives

  1. Students excplains the important characteristics of fishes
  2. Students understands modifications in fishes for aquatic life
  3. Students describes sexual reproduction in fishes by external fertilization
  4. Students draws the neat diagram showing external features of fish

Notes for teachers

  1. Fishes are the first to evolve as vertebrates
  2. They complete their life cycle only in aquatic medium,hence they use gills for respiration and fins for locomotin in water and have gelatinous scales for easy gliding in water.
  3. Two chambered heart facilitates one way blood circulation,so that oxygenated and deoxygenated blood circulates in a common channel.
  4. They are stenothermal and can adapt to wide range of temperature.
  5. Both fertilization and foetus development are external ,and are unisexual.


  1. list out the features which enables fishes to adapt themselves in aquatic medium
  2. visit a nearby aquarium and observe diversity in structure and colour of fishes


  1. Ichthyophis Video

Learning objectives

  1. Students describes the structural features of amphibians
  2. Students explains the important characteristics of amphibians
  3. Students give examples for amphibians
  4. Students understands the process of metamorphosis in amphibians
  5. Students explains external fertilization in amphibians

Notes for teachers

  1. Amphibians are the only vertebrates possessing body structure capable of adapting both in aquatic and terrestrial habitats
  2. Their early life cycle is in aquatic medium and adulthood in terrestrial habitat
  3. Moist skin,hind limb longer than fore limb,four fingers in fore limb ,five fingers in hind limb, are their distinguishing features.
  4. They exhibit metamorphosis
  5. They have three chambered heart,steno thermal.
  6. They exhibit metamorphosis.
  7. They are unisexual,both fertilization and foetus development are external


  1. Observe metamorphosis of frogs during rainy season in temporary ponds formed nearby your school and locality
  2. Listout the features enabling amphibians to adapt themselves in aquatic and terrestrial habitat seperately


Learning objectives

video of super chemilion

  1. Students explains the important characteristics of reptiles
  2. Students understands oviparous development in reptiles
  3. Students give examples for reptiles
  4. Students differentiates reptiles from amphibians

Notes for teachers

  1. Reptiles are the first vertebrates adapted to terrestrial habitat
  2. Reptiles are stenothermal,have three chambered heart in blood circulation
  3. Reptiles shows ecdisis,skin is dry and covered by scales
  4. Reptiles shows internal fertilization and external foetus development and are ovoparous


  1. Listout the features evolved in reptiles to enable them to adapt in terrestrial habitat
  2. Observe moulting in reptiles and understand the reason for moulting in reptiles


Learning objectives

  1. Students explains important features of birds
  2. Students recognises the features which helps birds for aerial adoptations
  3. Students differentiates aves from reptiles
  4. Students give reasons for stenothermic adaptation in birds
  5. Students relates body weight and aerial flight in birds

Notes for teachers

  1. In birds fore limbs are modified into wing,body is covered with feathers,beak protudes out of oral cavity
  2. They are the first evolved eurythermal vertebrates,have four chambered heart facilitating two way blood circulation to seperate oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood
  3. Birds have special sound box called syrinx


  1. Collect feathers of different birds and recognise the birds in your locality and try to understand the diversity of birds in your locality
  2. Listout the features evolved in birds to enable them to adapt for aerial flight


Learning objectives

  1. Students explains the important characteristics of mammals
  2. Students understands the significance of mammary glands and vivipary in mammals
  3. Students give reasons for evolutionary supremacy of mammals over other vertebrates
  4. Student compares mammals to other classes of vertebrates
  5. Students apreciates the diversity of mammals according to their habitat

Notes for teachers

  1. Mammals are the most advanced and highly evolved class among animals
  2. They possess mammary glands to feed their infants
  3. They are viviparous except Echidna and Platipus
  4. They are eurythermal,having four chambered heart in bood circulation which enables seperate ways for circulation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  5. Diaphragm seperates chest portion from abdomen
  6. The nervous system is highly evolved with brain,spinal chord and 12 pairs of brain nerves


  1. Conduct a micro survey of mammals to understand the diversity of mammals in your locality
  2. Draw a comparitive map of 5 classes of vertebrates and understand the course of evolution from Pisces to Mammals

Assessment Activities for CCE

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